仮定法

 

仮定法現在 

要望や提案についてのthat節の中の動詞は、主節の時制に関係なく、原形を用いる。(to~つかない)

 He requests that the chairperson review the agenda.

 We ask that everyone take this lesson.

 He proposed that the Malaysian factory accept the QC award.

 It is requested that the amendments be made ready within a few days.

 should に特に意味は無く、イギリス英語で使われる場合がある。

 The branch manager suggested that our proposal (should) be sent to the head office

 This manual helps applicants prepare the application documents without difficulties.

 help+物/人+動詞原形

 

仮定法過去

 現在の事実とは逆のことを仮定・想像・願望する場合に用いる。現時点についての仮説。

 [If+主語+動詞の過去形], 主語+would / should / could / might + 動詞の原形

 If I had money, I could buy it.

 If I were a bird, I could fly to her.

 

仮定法過去完了

過去の事実、以前の事、済んだ事とは逆のことが有ったならば、それによって過去に生じたであろう事を仮定・想像・願望する場合に用いる。過去の時点についての仮説。

 If I had passed the examination, I would have gone to America to learn English.

過去の事実に反する仮定部分     仮定した過去の事実が発生していたら,有ったであろう過去の事象

 =I didn’t go to America to learn English because I didn’t pass the examination.

 If it had rained on last Sunday, the sales event would have been moved indoors.

 = The sales event did not move indoors because it did not rain on last Sunday.

 The results of my presentation would have been more positive had I know the contest criteria in advance.

 = The results of my presentation was not positive because I did not know the contact criteria in advance.

 

使役

I made him check the inventory. 彼を強いて、在庫を確認させた。強制的なニュアンス。+動詞原形。 

I had him check the inventory.      彼が職務上行う義務がある在庫確認を彼に命じた。 動詞原形。

I let him check the inventory.        彼が在庫確認をしたそうだったので、許可した。 動詞原形。

I got him to check the inventory.  彼に頼んで在庫確認をしてもらった。

help

This manual helps applicants prepare the application documents without difficulties.

 help+物/人+動詞原形