仮定法

 

仮定法現在 

(1) 仮定

If we don't attend at the opening lemony, they may get disappointed.

(2)提案や要望などの内容を示すthat節の中では、主節の時制に関係なく、原形を用いる。(to~つかない)

 He requests that the chairperson review the agenda.

 We ask that everyone take this lesson.

 He proposed that the Malaysian factory accept the QC award.

 It is requested that the amendments be made ready within a few days.

 

 The branch manager suggested that our proposal (should) be sent to the head office.

                                         should に特に意味は無く、イギリス英語で使われる場合がある。

 This manual helps applicants prepare the application documents without difficulties.

 

仮定法過去

 現在の事実とは逆のことを仮定・想像・願望する場合に用いる。現時点についての仮説。

 [If+主語+動詞の過去形], 主語+would / should / could / might + 動詞の原形

 If I had money, I could buy it.

 If I were a bird, I could fly to her.

 

仮定法過去完了

過去の事実、以前の事、済んだ事とは逆のことが有ったならば、それによって過去に生じたであろう事を仮定・想像・願望する場合に用いる。過去の時点についての仮説。

 If I had passed the examination, I would have gone to America to learn English.

過去の事実に反する仮定部分     仮定した過去の事実が発生していたら,有ったであろう過去の事象

 =I didn’t go to America to learn English because I didn’t pass the examination.

 If it had rained on last Sunday, the sales event would have been moved indoors.

 = The sales event did not move indoors because it did not rain on last Sunday.

 The results of my presentation would have been more positive had I know the contest criteria in advance.

 = The results of my presentation was not positive because I did not know the contact criteria in advance.

 

現在完了形   have+過去分詞

たった今おきたこと   : I have finished my report.  

長年継続していること:We have been XYZ product's distributor for 10 years.

・過去の経験を今、語る:I have traveled all across Malaysia. I have never been to Spain.

・ちょっと前の行為の結果を今、語る: I have fixed the copy machine. It is now available.

 

現在完了進行形 have been ~ing 

過去から現在まで、一定の行為が継続して今に至る:

I have been working for this company more than 10 years.

We have been discussing this matter all morning.

 

過去完了形  had+過去分詞

過去の1時点の前後関係を示す:By the time I got to the sation, the airplane had already left.

                                                   (過去の1時点:過去形), (それより前:過去完了)

未来完了形 will have + 過去分詞

将来の一定時点までに終了しているであろうことを示す:

You will have received our shipment by the end of this month.

                (終了しているであろうこと) , (将来の一定時点)      

・現在の予測にもこの形を用いる

He left the hotel 2 hours ago. He will have arrived the airport by now.

・過去の出来事についての推測や確信にも、この形を用いる。

There must have been a design problem.

will と be going to

willは、その場で決めた決意

 Today, I will go to Japanese restaurant for lunch.

 Ok, if you say so, I will fly to Singapore to meet the customer.

be going to は、以前からその予定であることを説明

 I am going to see a Sci-fi movie, want to go with me?

 I am flying to Singapore next week.

help

This manual helps applicants prepare the application documents without difficulties.

 help+物/人+動詞原形

使役

I made him check the inventory. 彼を強いて、在庫を確認させた。強制的なニュアンス。+動詞原形。 

I had him check the inventory.      彼が職務上行う義務がある在庫確認を彼に命じた。 動詞原形。

I let him check the inventory.        彼が在庫確認をしたそうだったので、許可した。 動詞原形。

I got him to check the inventory.  彼に頼んで在庫確認をしてもらった。